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Irig, Ruma, Pećinci - 52 vikenda u Srbiji

FRUŠKOGORSKI ATOS

Na Fruškoj gori postoji sedamnaest pravoslavnih manastira nastalih od 15. do 18. veka. Zato se taj prostor naziva Severna Sveta gora. U okolini Iriga nalazi se osam izuzetnih manastirskih kompleksa: Vrdnička Ravanica, Grgeteg, Krušedol, Velika i Mala Remeta, Staro i Novo Hopovo, Jazak. Svaki manastir je riznica koja svedoči o preporodu Srba u kasnom srednjem veku.

ZRNO PŠENICE

Čitav svoj život slikar Jeremija posvetio je proučavanju obrednih hlebova. Plod njegove posvećenosti je muzej koji prikazuje „put zrna pšenice od zemlje, preko hleba, do neba“.

POSLEDNJA SREDNJOVEKOVNA PRESTONICA

U selu Kupinovo kod Pećinaca nalaze se ostaciKupinika, kraljevskog grada despota Lazarevića, Đurđa Brankovića i njegovih naslednika.


KIPOVI – SPOMENIK OPAKOJ BOLESTI

Na putu između Iriga i Rume, na mestu na kojem je zaustavljena kuga, podignut je jedinstveni spomenik! Epidemija je desetkovala Irig, koji je tada bio mnogoljudniji od Beograda. Spomenik su u znak zahvalnosti podigli pošteđeni Rumljani.

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Vrnjačka banja - 52 vikenda u Srbiji

Zanimljivosti
SEDAM IZVORA
U Vrnjačkoj banji lečili su se stari Rimljani i o tome svedoči lokalitet Fons Romanus. Moderna banja je rođena u leto 1869. godine, kada je i zvanično otvorena prva sezona. Danas se koristi čak sedam lekovitih izvora: Topla voda, Slatina, Snežnik, Jezero, Borjak, Beli izvor i Vrnjačko vrelo.

DVORAC I VRTOVI
Ponos grada je zdanje „Zamak kulture“, nekadašnji letnjikovac generala Belimarkovića, izgrađen krajem 19. veka. Simbol Vrnjačke banje i najčešći motiv razglednica je Termalno kupatilo i velika cvetna rundela u središtu parka. Zaštitni znak su i prostrani parkovi evropske vrtne arhitekture, u kojima se nalazi i novi japanski vrt.

TRADICIJA VEDRINE
Od samog osnivanja u Banju se dolazilo na lečenje i okrepljenje, ali i na vesela druženja. Tradicija održavanja balova i kermesa se, menjajući oblike, održala do danas. Najbolji reprezent tog duha je Vrnjački karneval.
KLjUČ SRCA
Jedna stara gradska priča govori o ljubavi koju je prekinuo Prvi svetski rat. Oficira Relju ratni vihor je odneo u Grčku, gde je zavoleo drugu devojku i njome se oženio. Ali avaj, Nada nije mogla da ga zaboravi. Do kraja života čekala ge je na mostu njihovih sastanaka. Videvši je kako vene, devojke su pod okriljem noći počele da dolaze na most i katancima „zaključavaju“ srca svojih momaka.

Najzanimljiviji događaji:
* Vrnjački karneval, jul
* Festival filmskog scenarija, avgust

Info
TO Vrnjačka Banja, Zvani?ni sajt Vrnja?ke Banje

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Beograd - 52 vikenda u Srbiji

* PRAPOČETAK BELOG GRADA
Beogradska tvrđava i park Kalemegdan muzej su istorije grada na otvorenom. Unutar utvrđenja postojimnoštvo spomenika koji svedoče o razvoju grada od antičkog do savremenog doba. U Gornjem gradu nalaze se: statua Pobednik – simbol grada, Vojni muzej, Rimski bunar, Crkva Ružica, Crkva Sv. Petke, Sahat- kula... U Donjem gradu vredno je posetiti postavku u kuli Nebojši, te Beo–zoo vrt.

* ULICA PLEMENITOG KNEZA
Pešačka zona i trgovački centar – Knez Mihailova ulica i Trg republike su među arhitektonski najvrednijim i najživljim delovima grada. Spomenik knezu Mihailu i palata Srpske akademije nauka i umetnosti dva su najupečatljivija obeležja najužeg centra. Tu su i zdanja Narodnog pozorišta i Narodnog muzeja. U toj zoni nalaze se Etnografski muzej, Konak kneginje Ljubice, Muzej Srpske pravoslavne crkve, Muzej Zepter, Muzej primenjene umetnosti, Galerija fresaka, te mnoge druge institucije kulture.

* BOEMSKI KVART
Postoji krilatica koja kaže: „Ko nije bio u Skadarliji, nije ni bio u Beogradu.“ U toj staroj, kaldrmom popločanoj ulici nalaze se znamenite kafane: Tri šešira, Dva jelena, Ima dana, Šešir moj... One neguju tradiciju veselog provoda uz starogradsku muziku i ukuse nacionalne kuhinje. Simbol kvarta su gospodski štap, karanfili i žirado šešir.

* ŽIVOT NA SAVI I DUNAVU
Posebno blago je priobalje grada: splavovi, klubovi, zelenilo... Pružaju jedinstven doživljaj metropole na vodi. Kej na Ušću, Zemunski kej i Savsko pristanište samo su deo prostora na obalama koji nude različite sadržaje: turističko razgledanje grada sa reka, izlaske na splavove, vožnju biciklom, šetnje s pogledom na mostove...

* HRAM SVETOG SAVE
Jedan od najvećih pravoslavnih hramova na svetu izgrađen je na prostranom Vračarskom platou, na mestu gde su krajem 16. veka Turci spalili moštiSvetog Save –prvog srpskog arhiepiskopa i velikana nacionalne istorije. Hram ima tri galerije za horove i može da primi oko deset hiljada ljudi.

* STARI ZEMUN
Nekada na samoj granici dva carstva, Zemun i danas odiše atmosferom Austrougarske carevine. Simbol tog posebnog gradaje kula Gardoš s panoramskim pogledom na Dunav. Turistički obilazak vrednih zdanja uključuje i šetnju živopisnom uređenom obalom Dunava.Još jedan biser Zemuna je peščana plaža Lido na Velikom ratnom ostrvu, koje je zaštićeno prirodno dobro Beograda.


* DVORSKI KOMPLEKS
Kraljevski i Beli dvor svedoče o istoriji i rafiniranom umetničkom ukusu srpske dinastije Karađorđević.U Kraljevskom dvoru, reprezentativnoj vili srpsko-vizantijskog stila, danas živiprestolonaslednik Aleksandar II sa porodicom.

* TOPČIDERSKI PARK
Dvorski park, dvorska crkva i orijentalni konak velikog srpskog vladara Miloša Obrenovića pričaju o istoriji oslobađanja Srbije od Turaka. Znamenitost parka je veličanstven stari platan.

* ADA CIGANLIJA
Beogradsko more – prelepo rečno jezero okruženo šumom, sa nizom kafea, restorana, biciklističkih staza i sportskih terenanajlepša je rekreativna zona grada. Sa Ade se pruža pogled na novoizgrađeni most na Savi – svetsko graditeljsko čudo i novi simbol grada.

* AVALA
Avalski toranjna istoimenoj planini još jedan je od simbola grada koji svedoči o moći Beograda da se izdigne iz pepela. Srušen ubombardovanju koje je preduzeo Nato 1999. godine, toranj je iznova podignut. Sa vidikovca na vrhu pruža se upečatljiv panoramski pogled. Na Avali se nalazi i monumentalni Spomenik neznanom junaku.

PAMĆENJE SVETA
Na Uneskovoj listi nematerijalnog kulturnog nasleđa upisan je Arhiv Nikole Tesle, genijalnog naučnika koji je „osvetlio planetu“. Arhivska građa i drugi vredni eksponati iz naučnikove zaostavštine čuvaju se u Muzeju Nikole Tesle. Još jedna dragocenost sa ove liste je jedinstveno ilustrovana i najstarija ćirilična rukopisna knjiga –Miroslavljevo jevanđelje (12. vek), koja se čuva u Narodnom muzeju u Beogradu.

OSMI MILENIJUM VINČE
Jedno od najsvetlijih poglavlja evropske praistorije ispisano je na svega petnaestak kilometara od
Beograda –u današnjem naselju Vinča. Nalazi sa ovog lokalitetatoliko su značajni da je cela kultura poznog neolita Jugoistočne Evrope po njoj dobila ime – vinčanska kultura.

ZABAVA I GASTRONOMIJA
Čuveni hroničar duha grada Momo Kapor nazvao je Beograd niskobudžetnim Njujorkom. Gastronomska ponuda obuhvata kuhinje svih meridijana, a grad je poznat kao „krunisana“ prestonica zabave.

Info:
TO Beograda, www.travel-belgrade.com
Muzeji i sakralno nasleđe
Sadržajna uputstva za obilazak muzeja i sakralnog nasleđa nalaze se na adresi:
www.tob.rs/sr-lat/see
Najzanimljiviji događaji
Bogata ponuda kulturnih, sportskih, zabavnihi turističkih događaja i festivala objavljuje se na adresi: www.tob.rs/sr-lat/events_list

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Konstantin Danil



Konstantin Danil (1798-1873) was a renowned Serbian painter of the 19th century. He is most famous for his portraits.

He was born in Lugoj in a family with Serbian and Romanian roots, in 1798. Danil Grigorović, Konstantin's father, was a Russian officer under the command of Alexander Suvarov who decided to settle in the city in Timis County in Banat (now western Romania) situated on the banks of the Timiș River, then part of the Austrian Military Frontier.

Konstantin Danil's parents intended him for a literary or learned career, however, he very early showed an interest in art, and at the age of thirteen he left Lugoj for Temișvar, where he executed a drawing which procured his admission to the school of Arsenije "Arsa" Teodorović (1767-1826). Teodorović was one of the most significant Serbian painters in the 18th- and 19th- century.

Here Konstantin Danil studied for several years, and produced, among other works, a figure of Saint Sava which attracted much attention.

At the age of seventeen he left Teodorović and went to the atelier of one of three Viennese academicians, then working in Temișvar. Danil also took lessons from itinerant portrait-painters and afterwards entered as a student in the Academy of Arts in Vienna and in Munich. It was in Vienna and Munich, where he became influenced for a while by the works of classicist German painters Asmus Jacob Carstens, Joachim Christian Reinhart, Peter Fendi, Joseph Anton Koch, Gottlieb Schick and Bonaventura Genelli.

Danil had tried his skill in every genre—in portraiture, landscape, flower-painting, scenes of modern life and figure subjects; his finest works in portraiture and nature mort (still life) rank among the masterpieces of the modern Serbian school. From Munich Danil returned to Veliki Bečkerek (Zrenjanin), where he resumed the style of Teodorović, and shortly afterwards Veliki Bečkerek, the city in the eastern part of Serbian province of Vojvodina, became his permanent residence.

Having spent much time in the military frontier, and having been with the Austrian troops in actual warfare, he made a specialty of rendering the Military Frontier officers and bordermen as seen on the Potiska and Pomoriška plains. One such portrait of Captain Kljunović and his wife impressed a Serbian Orthodox priest by the name of Arsenović, who selected Danil to decorate the walls, dome and iconostasis of a new Serbian Orthodox church in Pančevo with figures of saints. Upon complition of his commission (iconostasis) in 1833 Danil received an honorarium of 4,000 silver florins. At the same time he produced a series of designs illustrative of Old Testament history.

From 1834 to 1873 Danil threw himself into the renaissance of Biedermeier and the sacral painting based on the school of Vienna Nazarene movement, and became one of its leaders. He worked in his own atelier at 37 Tsar Dušan Street in Veliki Bečkerek where 14 Serbian artists were apprenticed, including our poet-painter Đura Jakšić and artist Lazar Nikolić, who wrote a biography of his teacher. In 1872 his wife, Sofia Dely, died, and a year later (1873), Danil died at Veliki Bečkerek (Zrenjanin) on 13 May.



His chief pictures are Madonna, Male Portrait, Still Life, Stanci Dely (his father-in-law), Archangel Gabriel, Ms Vaigling, Ms Tetesi, and, best known of all, General Stevan Kničanin and Portrait of Maria (1872). The portraits of his wife Sofia Dely (1840), Petar Jagodić, and A Lady with a Cross are among his best achievements in this class. The National Museum of Serbia at Belgrade contains a vast majority of his work.

He will be remembered as a master of technique, and his portraits—in the hundreds—reveal an extraordinary study into the characters of his subjects. Nevertheless, for some time after his death his name was almost forgotten by the public, and it is only in the twentieth century that he has been conceded the position amopng the masters of the modern Serbian school which is his due. Konstantin Danil, by virtue of his early art work in Temișvar, a multi-ethnic city (composed of Romanians, Germans, Hungarians and Serbs), is also claimed by three other nations, Romania, Austria and Hungary, as their own.

 

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Katedrala Svete Terezije Avilske



The Cathedral of St. Theresa of Avila is a Roman Catholic cathedral and minor basilica located in Subotica, Serbia, the seat of the Diocese of Subotica. It is dedicated to Saint Theresa of Avila.

The Cathedral was built between 1773 and 1779 in the baroque style. At the time, Subotica was part of the Habsburg Monarchy. The building was designed by architect Franz Kaufmann from Pest. The altar is decorated with several paintings by Josef Schoefft, one painting of the Holy Family by Kasper Schleibne, and one painting of the True Cross by Emmanuel Walch.

The building is 61 metres (200 ft) long and 26 metres (85 ft) wide. The nave is 18 metres (59 ft) tall, while the bell towers are 64 metres (210 ft) tall. On the roof of the building, between the two bell towers, is a statue of Virgin Mary. The pulpit was built in 1808. The pipe organ was installed in 1897 and renovated in 1997. New renovation works are planned for 2015.

The whole interior of the church was renovated in 1972-73 for the bicentennial of the building. The building was declared the Monument of Culture of Great Importance in 1973. Pope Paul VI granted the title of Minor basilica to the cathedral on 29 April 1974.



 

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Vršački zamak



The Vršac Castle is a medieval fortress near Vršac, Vojvodina, Serbia. Only Donjon tower remained from the entire complex, but in 2009 reconstruction started, to recreate the entire Vršac Castle.

Vršac Castle was declared a Monument of Culture of Great Importance in 1991, and is protected by the Republic of Serbia.

There are two theories about the origin of this fortress. According to the Turkish traveler, Evliya Çelebi, the fortress was built by the Serbian despot Đurađ Branković. Historians consider that Branković built the fortress after the fall of Smederevo in 1439. In its construction the fortress had some architectural elements similar to those in the fortress of Smederevo and the fortress around the Manasija monastery.

The other theory claims that Vršac Castle is a remnant of the medieval fortress known as Erdesumulu. However, sources for this theory do not identify Erdesumulu with Vršac, but claim that the location of this town and fortress was further to the east, on the Karaš River, in present-day Romanian Banat.

After the Ottoman conquest in 1552, the Vršac fortress was used by the Ottomans. In 1590/91 the Ottoman garrison there consisted of one aga, two Ottoman officers and 20 Serb mercenaries.

Situated on top of the local hill, the tower has a commanding view of the area. Many holidaymakers visit the area to admire views which extend as far as Romania.

At an official meeting held on 4 March 2009, Minister for Culture assistant Dušan Živković, provincial secretary for culture Milorad Djurić, Director of the Regional Institute for Protection of Cultural Heritage Zoran Vapa, and Vršac Mayor assistant Dragiša Vučinić agreed on the reconstruction of Vršac Tower, to return it to its former look. At that meeting the fortress was officially renamed from Vršac Tower to Vršac Castle.



 

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Kučevo, Žagubica 52 - vikenda u Srbiji

Zanimljivosti
BASNOSLOVNO BOGATSTVO
U Neresnicu je tridesetih godina 20. veka dopremljen bager za kopanje zlata. Kupilo ga je preduzeće u kome je kralj Aleksandar Karađorđević bio većinski vlasnik. Do 1955. godine, kada je otišao u staro gvožđe, bager je izvadio oko sedam tona čistog zlata. Rimski car Hadrijan je u kučevskom kraju imao rudnike zlata, srebra i gvožđa. Arheometalurški kompleks „Kraku Lu Jordan“ kod sela Brodica bio je važan antički metalurški centar.
PODZEMNI KOLOSEUM
Po bogatstvu nakita, pećina Ceremošnja je više nego raskošna. Najlepša dvorana oblikom veoma podseća na Koloseum, pa je zato dobila ime „Arena“. Simbol Ceremošnje je prekrasni stub nazvan „Na večnoj straži“.

MOLITVENO TIHOVANjE
Manastir Gornjak (14. vek) zadužbina je kneza Lazara. Podignut je u kanjonu Mlave na uzanoj zaravni podno strmih litica Ježevca. Čuveni putopisac Feliks Kanic je o utiscima sa ovog mesta zapisao: „Zastali smo kao opčinjeni raskošnom idilom ovog predela gde su boravili srpski pustinjaci.“ Prema predanju, u kapeli Svetog Save, koja je uzidana u vertikalnu stenu iznad manastira, podvizavao se Sveti Grigorije Sinait.

ZELENA VODA IZ DUBINA
Vrelo Mlave najdublje je izvorište u Evropi. Ima oblik jezera i nalazi se u prirodnom amfiteatru okruženom šumama. Prozirni, smaragdni izvor je kultno mesto Vlaških narodnih svetkovina.

Najzanimljiviji događaji:
* Homoljski motivi, avgust, Kučevo
* Sabor Vrela Homolja, jun, Žagubica

Info
TO Kučevo, ?????????? ???????????? "??????" ?????? | ?????????? ???????????? "??????" ??????, ?????? ???? 114, 12240 ??????, ???????: 012/850?666
TO Žagubica, </title> <link rel="profile" href="http://gmpg.org/xfn/11" /> <link rel="pingback" href="http://www.tozagubica.rs/xmlrpc.php" /> <title>Turisti?ka organizacija op?tine ?agubica ? Oficijalni sajt Turisti?ke organizacije op?tine ?agubica

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Velika Plana, Svilajnac 52 - vikenda u Srbiji

Zanimljivosti
POKAJNICA I ZAHVALNICA
Vojvoda Vujica Vulićević je 1817. godine na spavanju odsekao glavu svom kumu Karađorđu, velikom voždu Prvog srpskog ustanka. Prezren od ljudi, da bi se iskupio za svoje zlodelo, podigao je crkvu brvnaru, koju je narod nazvao Pokajnica. U Radovanjskom lugu, ne mestu gde se nalazila koliba u kojoj je ubijen vožd, njegov praunuk kralj Aleksandar I Karađorđević podigao je crkvu Zahvalnicu. To strašno ubistvo ostavilo je dubok trag u potonjoj istoriji Srbije.
DEVOJKA RATNIK
Istina i legenda o podvizima devojke Mare su tokom vekova prerasle u kult Resavske oblasti. Spomenik Mari Resavkinji podignut je 1926. godine u čast palim ratnicima varoši Svilajnac u borbama 1912–1918. godine.

SVET PRIRODE I DINOSAURUSA
Prirodnjački centar u Svilajncu ima izložbeni prostor podeljen na različite tematske celine, koje prikazuju geološka doba, diverzitet živog sveta, izumrle biljke i životinje, leteće reptile, život sisara... Posebna atrakcija je Dino park na otvorenom sa replikama dinosaurusa, modelom vulkana u kojem „kuva“ lava i jezercima u kojima se simbolično prikazuje evolucija naše planete.

MISTIKA CRKVENCA
Podrum Crkvenac osnovan je 1897. godine. Zapisano je da se u zlatnim vremenima tu čuvalo i do tri miliona litara vina! Danas je podrum specijalizovan za proizvodnju šljivovice prepečenice. Tu je proizvedena prepečenica od požegače i crvene ranke odležala u hrastovoj bačvi čak 30 godina. Nazvana je „Mistika Crkvenca“ i prodaje se isključivo putem aukcije.
Najzanimljiviji događaji:
* Voždovi dani, jul, Velika Plana
* Sinđelićevi dani, maj, Svilajnac

Info
* TSC Velika Plana, www.tscvelikaplana.org
* STC Svilajnac Svilajnac.rs

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Turistička organizacija opštine Trebinje - Trebinje grad u kamenu

Turistički film o turističkoj ponudi i potencijalima Trebinja i okolnih gradova čiju realizaciju potpisuje Turistička organizacija opštine Trebinje.

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Bijeljina iz vazduha

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Andricgrad - Visegrad

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Kuršumlija, Prokuplje 52 - vikenda u Srbiji

Zanimljivosti
ČUDESNE ZEMLjANE STATUE
Između šumovitih obronaka Radana, u strmom useku oskudnog rastinja, iz nezamislivo daleke epohe oligocena, veličanstveno stoji „okamenjena“ kolonada zemljanih statua. Dvesta dve figure sa crnim kamenim „kapama“ dobile su ime Đavolja varoš po narodnoj legendi o svatovima koje je okamenio sam đavo. Drevna varoš jedini je srpski kandidat za Sedam svetskih čuda prirode i mesto nesvakidašnje lepote.

TOPLIČKI IZVORI
Iz dubina Radana i Kopaonika izvire neverovatno bogatstvo lekovitih voda. Na tim izvorima nastale su Prolom, Lukovska i Kuršumlijska banja. Reka Toplica, po kojoj se zove čitava oblast, i sama je legenda. Ime je dobila po obilju toplih izvora duž toka od 136 kilometara! Na ulazu u Prokuplje reka udara u stenu Hisara i vraća se natrag obilazeći brdo, što je još jedno od čuda prirode toga kraja.

BELE CRKVE NEMANjIĆKE
Manastiri Sv. Nikole i Presvete Bogorodice u Kuršumliji među prvim su zadužbinama Stefana Nemanje, osnivača dinastije Nemanjića (12. vek).

MILENIJUMSKA TRADICIJA RUDARSTVA
Lokalitet Pločnik sinonim je za kasnu vinčansku kulturu. Istraživanja pokazuju da je reč o verovatno najstarijem metalurškom centru sveta, koji se prostirao na neverovatnih 110 hektara.

POSVEĆENOST NARODU
Doktor Aleksa Savić, neumorni lekar običnog naroda, prošao je golgotu Prvog svetskog rata i postao ministar narodnog zdravlja. Svoju imovinu zaveštao je Prokuplju. Na Hisaru se danas izdiže zdanje njegove zadužbine „Savićevac“.

Najzanimljiviji događaji:
* Međunarodna foto-kolonija Đavolja varoš, oktobar, Kuršumlija
* Gradska slava Sveti Prokopije, jul, Prokuplje

Info
TO Kuršumlija, Turisti?ka Organizacija Kur?umlija
TO Prokuplje, www.topk.rs

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Serbian Field Marshal Stepa Stepanovic I WHO DID WHAT IN WW1?

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52 vikenda u Srbiji

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Andricgrad

Andricgrad is a short documentary about special little town in Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Herzegovina raised by Film Director Emir Kusturica in homage to Yugoslavian Nobel Prize winner for literacy Ivo Andric. Town is built next to the famous Bridge over the Drina in Visegrad and architecturally is a monument to the past cultures and civilizations who left their traces in Bosnia in the last 500 years.
Directed, produced, edited and narrated by Miro Pavlovic.
Filmed by Vladimir Divjak Toto & Miro Pavlovic.
Music by Bora Dugic.
Filmed in Bosnia in Dec. 2013. and Jan. 2014.

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Zastava Srbije



The flag of Serbia is a tricolor consisting of three equal horizontal bands, red on the top, blue in the middle and white on the bottom. The same tricolor, in altering variations, has been used since the 19th century as the flag of the state of Serbia and the Serbian nation. The current form of the flag was officially adopted on 11 November 2010.



The son of King Stefan Vladislav (r. 1233–43), župan Desa, sent delegates from Kotor to Ragusa (Dubrovnik) to bring back part of the king's treasury held at Ragusa, which they did on 3 July 1281; the inventory list included, among other things, "a flag of red and blue color". It is described as vexillum unum de zendato rubeo et blavo—"a flag of fabric red and blue"; zendato (sr. čenda) being a type of light, silky fabric. This is the oldest known attestation of colours of a Serbian flag; the oldest known Serbian flag was red and blue.

In 1326, Dečanski sent a delegate to the Mamluk Sultanate in Alexandria and sought a flag in yellow colour, to be used as a war flag. The Byzantines mention that there were several war flags hoisted by the Serbs at the Battle of Velbuzhd (1330), and the yellow one was likely one of those.

The oldest known drawing of a Serbian flag is from the 1339 map made by Angelino Dulcert; Serbia, at the time ruled by King Stefan Dušan, is represented by a flag of a red double-headed eagle placed above capital Skoplje (Skopi). Stefan Dušan was crowned Emperor in 1346; Dušan also adopted the Byzantine tetragramme with four fire-steels, which afterwards became an element of the Serbian flag until today (the Serbian cross). A flag in Hilandar, seen by Dimitrije Avramović, was alleged by the brotherhood to have been a flag of Emperor Dušan; it was a triband of red at the top and bottom and white in the centre. Emperor Dušan also adopted the Imperial divelion, which was purple and had a golden cross in the centre. Another of Dušan's flags was the Imperial cavalry flag, kept at the Hilandar monastery on Mount Athos; a triangular bicolored flag, of red and yellow.



During the First Serbian Uprising, various flags were used. Among the early flags, the one described by Mateja Nenadović could be connected with today's flag and the first Serbian flag: it was red-blue-red with a Serbian cross. Regular armies of the uprising usually had light yellow flags with various symbols, while voivode flags were often red-white, and with a superimposed black two-headed eagle. There were also flags of other colors, including red-yellow, red-white-blue and red-blue. This variety of colors was followed by variety of symbols on the flags, most often taken from Hristofor Zhefarovich's book Stemmatographia of 1741. The most common symbol on the flags were the Serbian cross, followed by coat of arms of Tribalia and various other crosses. Most of the flags were made in Sremski Karlovci, designed by Serbian painters Stefan Gavrilović, Ilija Gavrilović and Nikola Apostolović.



The 1835 Sretenje Constitution described the colors of the Serbian flag as bright red, white and čelikasto-ugasita (that could be translated as steelish-dark). The constitution was criticized, especially by Russia, and the flag was specifically singled out as being similar to the revolutionary flag of France. Soon afterwards, Miloš Obrenović was requesting to the Porte that the new constitution should contain an article about the flag and coat of arms, and subsequent ferman (1835) allowed Serbs to use their own maritime flag, which will have "upper part of red, middle of blue, and lower of white", which is the first appearance of the colors that are used today.

The colors are the reverse of those on the flag of Russia, and various popular stories exist in Serbia which seek to explain why. An example:

“ In Karađorđe's time, a delegation from Serbia went to Russia to seek help, and after arrival was at a celebration. When they were asked why don't they participate in the parade, they hastily entered and turned the Russian flag upside down. The citizens have thus noticed that Serbs have their flag too. ”



Serbia used the red, blue and white tricolor continuously from 1835 until 1918 when Serbia joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later known as Yugoslavia.



After World War II, Yugoslavia was reformed into a socialist federal republic, composed of six republics, one of which was Serbia. Each republic was entitled to its own flag on the condition that it contained the socialist red star. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia initially continued using the same flag; the 1990 Constitution of Serbia stated that flag and coat of arms of Serbia can only be changed by the same procedure used to change the constitution itself, which required absolute majority of voters to support it. 1992 Serbian constitutional referendum asked the voters to choose between the flag with and without the star, with red star gaining the majority of votes, however not the absolute majority of voters. The red star was nonetheless removed from the flag in 1992 by a recommendation by the Serbian parliament; however, the coat of arms remained unchanged. In 2003, however, the government of Serbia issued a recommendation on flag and coat of arms use, that preferred using different symbols from the ones in the constitution. The 2006 Constitution of Serbia stated that state emblems would be regulated by law; the recommendation remained in use until 11 May 2009, when the actual flag law was enacted. On 11 November 2010, a visual redesign of the coat of arms was enacted, which is currently used on the state flag.



Montenegro used to have a flag similar to the Serbian tricolor with varying shades of blue. It originated from Montenegrin national costume. During the second Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro had flags of the same design and colors. Montenegro changed its flag in 1993 by altering the proportion and shade of blue in its flag and used this flag until 2004.



The Serbian tricolor was also the basis for the breakaway territories of Republic of Serbian Krajina and Republika Srpska during the Yugoslav Wars. The flag of Republika Srpska is still the Serbian tricolor as well as Flag of Serbs of Croatia.



The Serbian tricolor defaced with a Serbian cross is used as the flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church. A number of other unofficial variant flags, some with variations of the cross, coat of arms, or both, exist.
 

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Patrijarh Srpski Gavrilo V



Gavrilo Dožić (17 May 1881 – 7 May 1950), also known as Gavrilo V, was the Metropolitan of Montenegro and the Littoral (1920–1938) and the 41st Serbian Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church (1938–1950)

Đorđe Dožić was born on 17 May 1881 in Vrujci, Kolašin, Lower Morača, Montenegro, near Morača Monastery. His family belonged to the Medenica brotherhood.[2] He finished primary school at the monastery, as a pupil of his paternal uncle, archimandrite Mihailo. He went to theological schools in Prizren and the Prince Islands. He finished the theological faculty in Athens. He worked as the secretary of the monastery of Hilandar.

After bishop Nićifor Perić of Raška-Prizren withdrew from his office (1911), due to disagreement with the Serbian diplomacy, the Patriarchate of Constantinople appointed Gavrilo as successor, as the Serbian diplomacy wanted.

After the death of Mitrofan Ban, the Metropolitan of Montenegro and the Littoral, in 1920, Gavrilo was picked as the new Metropolitan of Montenegro and the Littoral on 17 November 1920. He stayed in this position until he was chosen to become the 51st Serbian Patriarch on 21 February 1938.

During World War II Patriarch Gavrilo and Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović were incarcerated at Dachau. After the Allied victory and the liberation of concentration camps, both Patriarch Gavrilo and Bishop Nikolaj went to England to live. But after a short stay, Patriarch Gavrilo decided to return home to die.



During World War II in 1941, as soon as the German forces occupied Yugoslavia, Patriarch Gavrilo was arrested by the Nazis in the Monastery of Žiča, after which he was confined in the Monastery of Ljubostinja. Later he was transferred to the Monastery of Vojlovica (near Pančevo) in which he was confined together with Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović until the end of 1944.

On September 15, 1944 both Serbian Patriarch Gavrilo V and Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović were sent to the Dachau concentration camp, which was at that time the main concentration camp for priests arrested by the Nazis. Both Dožić and Velimirović were held as special prisoners imprisoned in the so-called Ehrenbunker separated from the work camp area, together with high-ranking Nazi enemy officers and other prominent prisoners whose arrest has been dictated by Hitler directly. In December 1944 they were transferred from Dachau to Slovenia, together with Milan Nedić, the Serbian collaborationist PM, and German general Hermann Neubacher, the first Nazi mayor of Vienna (1938–1939), as the Nazis attempted to make use of Patriarch Gavrilo's and Nikolaj's authority among the Serbs in order to gain allies in the anti-Communist movements. Contrary to claims of torture and abuse at the camp, Patriarch Dožić testified himself that both he and Velimirović were treated normally by the guards. The statement "treated normally", if made by Patriarch Gavrilo, was made at the time when Nazi Germany still held sway in Yugoslavia.

Later, Patriarch Dožić and Bishop Nikolaj were moved to Austria, and were finally liberated by the US 36th Infantry Division in Tyrol in 1945.

He was physically weakened by these vicissitudes and grew to look very old and frail. Soon after, he was taken to England. Both Dožić and Velimirović were at Westminster Abbey at the baptism of King Peter II of Yugoslavia's son and heir, Crown Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia. Velimirović preached a very moving sermon at the Serbian Orthodox chapel in the house in Egerton Gardens. But there was no place for him in England such as there had been during the First World War. Patriarch Gavrilo, being old and ill, returned to what then came to be known as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, while Bishop Nikolaj opted to emigrate to the United States.

Patriarch Gavrilo died on 7 May 1950, aged 68, in Belgrade, Serbia. He was buried in the Cathedral Church.

 

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Veselin Masleša



Veselin Masleša (20 April 1906 – 14 June 1943) was a Bosnian Serb writer, activist and Yugoslav Partisan.

Veselin Masleša was born in Banja Luka, Bosnia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, where he finished grade school and gymnasium. He then studied law at the University of Zagreb, economics in Frankfurt and then political economy and sociology in Paris.

His first published work was in the magazine Nova literatura in 1928, and he also published in the magazines Književnik, Stožer, Danas and Naša stvarnost. He wrote two large studies called Mlada Bosna and Svetozar Marković which were published later in 1945.

In 1927 he was arrested for the first time due to his communist ideas. Between 1928 and 1939 he was arrested and released on several occasions, eventually causing him to go underground. When World War II started in Yugoslavia in 1941, he was in Montenegro where he joined the Partisans. Masleša died during the attempted breakout through enemy lines during the Axis Case Black offensive in the summer of 1943.

On December 20, 1951 he was posthumously awarded the title of People's Hero of Yugoslavia. There was a Sarajevo-based publishing house named after him but the name was later changed to Sarajevo Publishing, and the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina's scientific achievement award was also named after him.

 

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Jovan Sundečić

Jovan Sundečić (24 June 1825 – 1900), was a Serbian poet from Livno, Bosnia and Herzegovina, priest of the Serbian Orthodox Church and a secretary of Prince Nikola I of Montenegro. He is most famous for writing lyrics of contemporary anthem of Montenegro Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori (To Our Beautiful Montenegro).

 
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