1- Why not a foreigner coach, JC? I don't think just bringing someone from another nationality will instantly make the team work, but why simply rule it out? It's not logical to think that having someone from another country will solve the problems, but it's also not very reasonable to say that we should not do that. It's not like we are flooded with great options that would be better than a Mourinho.
Mourinho and Guardiola are better coaches than we have here. Also Pekerman, for his experience in NTs and showing that he's able to make a NT work like a team, and the football Argentina and Colombia played under his management was very attractive. I think he would be better than the options you've mentioned.
Tite can make a defensive team and apply "modern concepts" about training and tactics, but I still have my doubts about him. Corinthians was his first great work in several years, and it didn't end so well, they spent the whole 2013 season playing like crap. Tite certainly has his part on this.
Marcelo Oliveira is not experienced enough, he would be a gamble. Cuca is the name I would be most curious to see, he already showed he's able to try different things and his approach to the game is very intense and unique. Anyway, I still think he's more of a league coach than a playoff coach, even after winning Libertadores. He never seemed to be able to make a great defensive system and in this moment I don't think Brazil has material to make an offensive approach. Brasil is worse than Germany, Spain and Argentina when it comes to offensive talent, so there's no way we can rely in Cuca's usual approach to "score a lot and conceeding less".
About Van Gaal, not that I'm his fan or anything close to that, but since you've argued that Holland couldn't finish against Argentina, it would be fair to also point that they didn't conceed a single goal for the last six hours of World Cup. That's a very impressive mark, you can't just look at one side. And their team was not so good, the defensive system was built of several young and modest players, so it's not like he achieved that by having Cannavaro and Maldini on his defense. Holland did a great WC, even if Van Gaal can't be called a genius for that.
Also, I didn't get your point about foreigner coaches "not living here". Did someone say that we need a coach from outside because he would call more Brazilian league players? That doesn't make any sense.
2 - Fred, of course. And Julio Cesar, Victor, Jefferson, Dani Alves, Maicon, Fernandinho should not be called again. They simply aren't good enough to be considered now, all of them will be old and IMO a player should be really special to be considered for a WC when they are past 32 years old. I'd also give a break to Marcelo, Hulk and Jô. Luiz Gustavo never was good enough for NT IMO, even if he didn't stink in the WC like Fernandinho.
Another thing: the Next coach should flat out determine that if you are in Russia or anything similar you will not be called. Players want to be millionaries before 24 years? Fine. They can do it but forget about football at highest level. And if you are in the bench (Not due to injurie or not a team with big rotation), you are out. The problem is the coach? The team? Then plan better where you going to be signing a contract. And get out of there. Unless you are a wonder like Neymar, most players can be replaced.
I don't know if I ABSOLUTELY agree with this but you certaintly have an interesting point. It's something that we should talk about.
3 - I would call for the next friendly:
GK: Diego Alves, Neto
SB: Rafinha, Danilo, Filipe Luis
CB: Thiago Silva, David Luiz, Dedé, Marquinhos
DM: Lucas Leiva, Ramires
CM: Paulinho, Hernanes
AM: Phillipe Coutinho, Oscar
RM: Lucas Moura, Roberto Firmino
LM: Bernard, Willian
and to start I would play with 3 defenders: