Could Anybody Sticky this please?
Clubs: FC Basel
Capacity: Former:39,000 Euro 2008: 42,500
Opened In: March 15 2001
it is the stadium where FC Basel play. "Joggeli" as it is nicknamed, has a current capacity of 39,000 seats. The capacity will be increased to 42,500 in time for Euro 2008, which will be hosted in Switzerland and Austria. The stadium is divided into four blocks, A B C and D, each block is a whole side of the stadium. St. Jakob Park is a fairly new stadium, the construction started on the 13th of December 1998. The first game played in it was on the 15th of March 2001. The "Genossenschaft S.J.P" officially own the stadium, the stadium itself is managed by "Basel United". The stadium cost around 220 million Swiss Francs to build. Within the stadium are 32 stores on 3 different floors. There are also 2 restaurants within the stadium, these are "Restaurant UNO" and "Hattrick Sports Bar". The stadium has parking space for 680 cars on 2 different floors. The stadium can be reached either by bus, tram or train (the stadium has its own train station).
The stadium has been awarded 4 stars by UEFA, which is the highest amount of stars that can be awarded to a stadium of that size.
For Euro 2008, the St. Jakob park will be host to 6 games, 3 group games including the opening match, two quarter-finals and a semi-final.
Stade de Suisse Wankdorf
Clubs: BSC Young Boys
Opened In: July 30, 2005
The Stade de Suisse was built on the grounds of the former Wankdorf Stadium, which had been demolished in 2001. The new stadium has a capacity of 32,000 spectators, all covered seats. Integrated into the roof are solar panels with a yearly production of 700,000 kWh. The stadium was officially opened on July 30, 2005, although the first match in the new stadium had already taken place on July 16 2005. Young Boys played against Olympique Marseille and lost 2-3 with 14,000 spectators watching. The match was considered an "infrastructure test", which is why no more than 14,000 tickets were sold.
The stadium was used by FC Thun for three Champions League home matches in 2005, and for one home match in the UEFA Cup Round of 32 this year.
Stade de Genève
Clubs: Servette FC
Opened In: 2003
Stade de Genève is a stadium in the greater Geneva, Switzerland area (located in Lancy, south of the city). It has a capacity of 30,084. The stadium was completed in 2003 after nearly three years of construction. Normally the home venue of Geneva's Servette FC, a Swiss football team, the stadium hosted international friendlies between Argentina and England on November 12 2005, which England won 3-2 and between New Zealand and Brazil on June 4, 2006, which Brazil won 4-0. The venue will also be used to host three group-stage matches for Group A during the next UEFA European Football Championship in 2008
Clubs: FC Zürich, Grasshopper
Capacity: Former:23,605 Current:26,500
Opened In: February 22, 1925
it is a stadium in Zürich, Switzerland, with a maximum capacity of 23,605. It is the home of the football club FC Zürich. It is also temporarily home to the football club Grasshopper-Club Zürich while their stadium (Stadion Zürich) is under construction. The annual athletics meet Weltklasse Zürich—part of the IAAF Golden League—takes place at the Letzigrund, as well as frequent open air concerts.
It opened February 22, 1925 owned by the FC Zürich football club. During the Great Depression, ownership changed to the city of Zürich in 1937 which has operated it since. It underwent extensive remodelling in 1947, 1958, 1973, and 1984. Lighting was added in 1973. The first open air concert was in 1996.
Of the 23,605 places, 11,605 have seats (9,167 covered) and 12,000 are covered standing area. The main pitch is 105 by 68 metres with athletics facilities. There are also three other playing fields: 2 lawns, 1 artificial turf and a small packed sand field. A bar and a restaurant are within the stadium.
In January 2005, UEFA approved plans to rebuild the stadium for use as a EURO 2008 venue. It is set to host 3 matches in the 2008 European Football Championship.
The new stadium was opened on August 30th 2007. The first sport-event there was the annual Weltklasse Zürich on Septemeber 7th with 26500 spectators, the first football-game was FC Zürich vs. Grasshopper Club Zürich on Septemeber 23th.
Ernst Happel Stadion
Clubs: Austria NT, Austria Vienna, Rapid Vienna
Capacity: Former: 49,825 Euro 2008: 53,008
Opened in: 1931
The Ernst Happel Stadium is the largest football stadium in Austria. It is the home of the Austrian national football team. Club football matches are generally limited to the domestic cup and international competitions featuring one of Vienna's top clubs, FK Austria Wien and SK Rapid Wien, as their regular stadiums are too small to host UEFA Champions League and UEFA Cup matches. Local derbies between FK Austria and SK Rapid have also been played in the stadium.
Although its current capacity is only 49,825, the stadium is rated one of UEFA's Five Star Stadiums (normally 50,000+ capacity), permitting it to host the UEFA Champions League final. The seating capacity is being expanded to 53,008 for the 2008 European Football Championship, with the final to be held in the stadium. The stadium will also host 3 group games, 2 quarter final matches and a semifinal. The attendance record of 92,706 for a match against the USSR was in 1960. The capacity has since been reduced.
Clubs: SK Austria Karnten
Capacity: Former: 10,900 Euro 2008: 32,000
Opened in: 1960
it is a multi-use stadium in Klagenfurt, Austria. It is the home ground of SK Austria Kärnten.
The old stadium, known as the Wörtherseestadion, was built in 1960 and had a capacity of 10,900. It was demolished in 2005 and replaced by the new Hypo Arena, for the 2008 European Football Championship, which can hold 32,000 spectators. After the event, the stadium will be reduced to a capacity of 12,500. The official opening was on the 07.09.2007 and hosted a friendly between Austria and Japan in front of 26,500 spectators.
Wals Siezenheim Stadium
Clubs: Red Bull Salzburg
Capacity: Former: 18,200 Euro 2008: 30,000
Opened in: 2003
it is a football stadium in Wals-Siezenheim, a suburb of Salzburg, Austria. It was officially opened in March 2003 and is the home ground of Red Bull Salzburg.
Its current seating capacity is 30,000. The stadiums previous capacity was 18,200, but was just recently expanded to 30,000 so it will be able to accommodate the 2008 European Football Championship.
The "EM Stadion Wals-Siezenheim" is the only stadium in the Austrian Bundesliga which uses artificial turf. Polytan's FIFA 2-Star Recommended 40mm surface Ligaturf with a 25mm elastic layer was installed in 2005.
Clubs: FC Wacker Tirol
Capacity: Former: 17,400 Euro 2008: 30,000
Opened in: 2000
it is a multi-use stadium in Innsbruck, Austria. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home ground of FC Wacker Tirol. The stadium holds 17,400 and was built in 2000. It will be expanded to 30,000 people for the 2008 European Football Championship. It replaced the original Tivoli stadium.
During the days of the Roman Empire, in 44 BC, the settlement of Augusta Raurica was founded 10 or 20 kilometres upstream of present Basel, and a castle was built on the hill overlooking the river where the Basel Münster now stands. But even older Celtic settlements (including a vitrified fort) have been discovered recently in the area predating the Roman castle. The city's position on the Rhine long emphasised its importance: Basel for many centuries possessed the only bridge over the river "between Lake Constance and the sea".
The town of Basel was called "Basilia" in Latin, and this name is documented from the year 374 CE. From 999 till the Reformation, Basel was ruled by prince-bishops (see Bishop of Basel). In 1019 the construction of the cathedral of Basel (known locally as the Münster) began under German Emperor Heinrich II. In 1225–1226 the Bridge over the Rhine was constructed by Bishop Heinrich von Thun and lesser Basel (Kleinbasel) founded as a beachhead to protect the bridge.
In 1356 the Basel earthquake destroyed much of the city along with a number of castles in the vicinity. The city offered courts in the city to nobles as an alternative to rebuilding their castles, in exchange for the nobles' military protection of the city. The De Bâle family moved in and helped rebuild the city and the surrounding country, but set up house in the countryside.
In 1412 (or earlier) the well-known guesthouse Zum Goldenen Sternen was established. Basel became the focal point of western Christendom during the 15th century Council of Basel (1431 –1449), including the 1439 AD election of antipope Felix V. In 1459 Pope Pius II endowed the University of Basel where such notables as Erasmus of Rotterdam, Paracelsus and Hans Holbein the Younger taught. At the same time the new craft of printing was introduced to Basel by apprentices of Gutenberg.
The Schwabe publishing house was founded 1488 by Johannes Petri and is the oldest publishing house still in business. Johann Froben also operated his printing house in Basel and was notable for publishing works by Erasmus. In 1495, Basel was incorporated in the Upper Rhenish Imperial Circle, the bishop sitting on the Bench of the Ecclesiastical Princes. In 1500 the construction of the Basel Münster was finished. In 1501 Basel de facto separated from the Holy Roman Empire and joined the Swiss Confederation as 11th state, and began of the construction of the city council building. The bishop continued to reside in Basel until the reformation of Oecolampadius in 1529. The bishop's crook was however retained as the city's coat of arms. In March 1536 the first edition of Christianae religionis institutio (Institutes of the Christian Religion) was published in Latin by John Calvin at Basel. There are indications Joachim Meyer, an influential 16th century author of a book on fighting (kunst des Fechten) came from Basel.
Intended as a defence of Huguenots then persecuted in France, Calvin's Institutes was an exposition of Protestant Christian doctrine which later became known as Calvinism. In 1543 De humani corporis fabrica, the first anatomy book was published and printed in Basel by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564). In 1662 the Amerbaschsches Kabinett formed the basis of a collection and exposition, forming the core of the Basel Museum of Art.
In 1792 AD the Republic of Rauracia, a revolutionary French client republic, was created. It lasted until 1793. In 1912, the extraordinary congress of the Second International was held in Basel, due to the outbreak of the Balkan Wars
Duke Berthold V of Zähringen founded the city on the River Aare in 1191 and allegedly named it after a bear (Bär in German) he had killed. It was made an Imperial Free City by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in 1218 after Berthold died without an heir. In 1353 Berne joined the young Swiss Confederation, becoming a leading member of the new state. It invaded and conquered Aargau in 1415 and Vaud in 1536, as well as other smaller territories, thereby becoming the largest city-state north of the Alps. It was occupied by French troops in 1798 during the French Revolutionary Wars, when it was stripped of most of its territories. In 1831 the city became the capital of the Canton of Berne and in 1848 it additionally became the Swiss capital.
The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aar. Initially, the Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345, which, in turn, was then succeeded by the Christoffelturm (located close to today's train station) until 1622. During the time of the Thirty Years' War two new fortifications, the so-called big and small Schanze (entrenchment), were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula. The protection by these edifices was sufficient for the prosperous growth of the city of Berne up to the 19th century.
A number of congresses of the socialist First and Second Internationals were held in Berne, particularly during World War I when Switzerland was neutral.
Geneva (Genava of Geneva, also Janua and Genua), capital of the Swiss canton of the same name situated where the Rhône issues from the Lake of Geneva (Lacus Lemanus), first appears in history as a border town, fortified against the Celto-Germanic Helvetii, which the Romans took in 120 B.C. In A.D. 443 it was taken by Burgundy, and with the latter fell to the Franks in 534. In 888 the town was part of the new Kingdom of Burgundy, and with it was taken over in 1033 by the German Emperor. According to legendary accounts found in the works of Gregorio Leti ("Historia Genevrena", Amsterdam, 1686) and Besson ("Memoires pour l'histoire ecclésiastique des diocèses de Genève, Tantaise, Aoste et Maurienne", Nancy, 1739; new ed. Moutiers, 1871), Geneva was Christianised by Dionysius Areopagita and Paracodus, two of the seventy-two disciples, in the time of Domitian; Dionysius went thence to Paris and Paracodus became the first Bishop of Geneva but the legend is fictitious, as is that which makes St. Lazarus the first Bishop of Geneva, an error arising out of the similarity between the Latin names Genara (Geneva) and Genua (Genoa, in northern Italy). The so-called "Catalogue de St. Pierre", which gives St. Diogenus (Diogenes) as the first Bishop of Geneva, is untrustworthy.
A letter of St. Eucherius to Salvius makes it almost certain that St. Isaac (c. 400) was the first bishop. In 440 St. Salonius appears as Bishop of Geneva; he was a son of St. Eucherius, to whom the latter dedicated his Instructiones'; he took part in the Councils of Orange (441), Vaison (442) and Arles (about 455), and is supposed to be the author of two small commentaries, In parabolas Salomonis and on Ecclesisastis (published in P. L., LII, 967 sqq., 993 sqq. as works of an otherwise unknown bishop, Salonius of Vienne). Little is known about the following Bishops Theoplastus (about 475), to whom St. Sidonius Apollinaris addressed a letter; Dormitianus (before 500), under whom the Burgundian Princess Sedeleuba, a sister of Queen Clotilde, had the remains of the martyr and St. Victor of Soleure transferred to Geneva, where she built a basilica in his honour; St. Maximus (about 512-41), a friend of Avitus, Archbishop of Vienne and Cyprian of Toulon, with whom he was in correspondence (Wawra in "Tubinger Theolog. Quartalschrift", LXXXV, 1905, 576-594). Bishop Pappulus sent the priest Thoribiusas his substitute to the Synod of Orléans (541). Bishop Salonius II is only known from the signatures of the Synods of Lyons (570) and Paris (573) and Bishop Cariatto, installed by King Guntram in 584, was present at the two Synods of Valence and Macon in 585.
From the beginning the bishopric of Geneva was a suffragan of the archbishopric of Vienne. The bishops of Geneva had the status of prince of the Holy Roman Empire since 1154, but had to maintain a long struggle for their independence against the guardians (advocati) of the see, the counts of Geneva and later the counts of Savoy. In 1290 the latter obtained the right of installing the vice-dominus of the diocese, the title of Vidame of Geneva was granted to the family of count François de Candie of Chambery-Le-Vieux a Chatellaine of the Savoy, this official exercised minor jurisdiction in the town in the bishop's. In 1387 Bishop Adhémar Fabry granted the town its great charter, the basis of its communal self-government, which every bishop on his accession was expected to confirm. When the line of the counts of Geneva became extinct in 1394, and the House of Savoy came into possession of their territory, assuming after 1416 the title of Duke, the new dynasty sought by every means to bring the city of Geneva under their power, particularly by elevating members of their own family to the episcopal see. The city protected itself by union with the Swiss Federation (Eidgenossenschaft), uniting itself in 1526 with Berne and Fribourg.
The Reformation plunged Geneva into new entanglements: while Berne favoured the introduction of the new teaching and demanded liberty of preaching for the Reformers Guillaume Farel and Antoine Froment, Catholic Fibourg renounced in 1511 its allegiance with Geneva. Calvin went to Geneva in 1536 and began systematically to preach his doctrine there. By his theocratic "Reign of Terror" he succeeded in forcing himself upon Geneva as absolute ruler, and converted the city into a 'Protestant Rome'. As early as 1532 the bishop had been obliged to leave his residence, never to return; in 1536 he fixed his see at Gex, in 1535 at Annecy. The Apostolic zeal and devotion of St. Francis de Sales, who was Bishop of Geneva from 1602 to 1621, restored to Catholicism a large part of the diocese.
Formerly the Diocese of Geneva extended well into Savoy, as far as Mont Cenis and the Great St. Bernard. Nyon, also often erroneously considered a separate diocese, belonged to Geneva. Under Charlemagne Tarantaise was detached from Geneva and became a separate diocese. Before the Reformation the bishops of Geneva ruled over 8 chapters, 423 parishes, 9 abbeys and 68 priories.
In 1802 the diocese was united with that of Chambéry. At the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) the territory of Geneva was extended to cover 15 Savoyard and 6 French parishes, with more than 16,000 Catholics; at the same time it was admitted to the Swiss Confederation. The Congress expressly provided -- and the same proviso was included in the Treaty of Turin (16 March 1816) -- that in these territories transferred to Geneva the Catholic religion was to be protected, and that no changes were to he made in existing conditions without agreement with the Holy See. Pius VII in 1819 united the city of Geneva and 20 parishes with the Diocese of Lausanne, while the rest of the ancient Diocese of Geneva (outside of Switzerland) was reconstituted, in 1822, as the French Diocese of Annecy. The Great Council of Geneva (cantonal council) afterwards ignored the responsibilities thus undertaken; in imitation of Napoleon's "Organic Articles", it insisted upon the Placet, or previous approval of publication, for all papal documents. Catholic indignation ran high at the civil measures taken against Marilley, the parish priest of Geneva and later bishop of the see. Still greater indignation was aroused among the Catholics by the injustice created by the Kulturkampf, which obliged them to contribute to the budget of the Protestant Church and to that of the Old Catholic Church, while for their own religious needs they did not receive the smallest pecuniary aid from the public treasury. On 30 June 1907, most of the Catholics of Geneva voted for the separation of Church and State. By this act of separation they were assured at least a negative equality with the Protestants and Old Catholics. Since then the Canton of Geneva has given aid to no creed out of either the state or the municipal revenues. The Protestants have been favoured, for to them a lump compensation of 800,000 Swiss francs (about $160,000 then) was paid at the outset, whereas the Catholics, in spite of the international agreements assuring financial support to their religion -- either from the public funds or from other sources -- received nothing.
In Roman times, Turicum was a tax-collecting point at the border of Gallia Belgica (from AD 90 Germania superior) and Raetia for goods trafficked on the Limmat river.
A Carolingian castle, built on the site of the Roman castle by the grandson of Charlemagne, Louis the German, is mentioned in 835 ("in castro Turicino iuxta fluvium Lindemaci"). Louis also founded the Fraumünster abbey in 853 for his daughter Hildegard. He endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zürich, Uri, and the Albis forest, and granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority.
In 1045 , King Henry III granted the convent the right to hold markets, collect tolls, and mint coins, and thus effectively made the abbess the ruler of the city.
Zürich became reichsunmittelbar in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family. A city wall was built during the 1230s, enclosing 38 hectares.
Emperor Frederick II promoted the abbess of the Fraumünster to the rank of a duchess in 1234 . The abbess assigned the mayor, and she frequently delegated the minting of coins to citizens of the city. However, the political power of the convent slowly waned in the 14th century, beginning with the establishment of the Zunftordnung (guild laws) in 1336 by Rudolf Brun, who also became the first independent mayor, i.e. not assigned by the abbess.
The famous illuminated manuscript known as The Manesse Codex, now in Heidelberg - described as "the most beautifully illumined German manuscript in centuries;" - was commissioned by the Manesse family of Zürich, copied and illustrated in the city at some time between 1304 and 1340. Producing such a work was a highly expensive prestige project, requiring several years work by highly skilled scribes and miniature painters, and it clearly testifies to the increasing wealth and pride of Zürich citizens in this period.
Zürich joined the Swiss confederation (which at that time was a loose confederation of de facto independent states) as the fifth member in 1351 but was expelled in 1440 due to a war with the other member states over the territory of Toggenburg (the Old Zürich War). Zürich was defeated in 1446, and re-admitted to the confederation in 1450.
Zwingli started the Swiss Reformation at the time when he was the main preacher in Zürich. He lived there from 1484 until his death in 1531.
In 1839 , the city had to yield to the demands of its urban subjects, following the Züriputsch of 6 September. Most of the ramparts built in the 17th century were torn down, without ever having been besieged, to allay rural concerns over the city's hegemony. The Treaty of Zurich between Austria, France, and Sardinia was signed in 1859 .
From 1847 , the Spanisch-Brötli-Bahn, the first railway on Swiss territory, connected Zürich with Baden, putting the Zürich Main Station at the origin of the Swiss rail network. The present building of the Hauptbahnhof (chief railway station) dates to 1871.
Zürich was accidentally bombed during World War II.
Founded around 500 BC, Vienna was originally a Celtic settlement. In 15 BC, Vienna became a Roman frontier city ("Vindobona") guarding the Roman Empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
During the Middle Ages, Vienna was home of the Babenberg Dynasty and in 1440 became residence city of the Habsburg dynasties from where Vienna eventually grew to become the capital of the Holy Roman Empire and a cultural centre for arts and science, music and fine cuisine. The Ottoman conquerors of Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries were stopped twice just outside Vienna (see Siege of Vienna, 1529 and Battle of Vienna, 1683).
In 1804, Vienna became capital of the Austrian Empire and continued to play a major role in European and World politics, including hosting the 1815 Congress of Vienna. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 Vienna remained the capital of what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the latter half of the 19th Century the city developed what had previously been the bastions and glacis into the Ringstraße, a major prestige project.
In 1918, after World War I, Vienna became capital of the First Austrian Republic. During the 1920s and 1930s it was a bastion of Socialism in Austria, and became known as "Red Vienna." The city was stage to the Austrian Civil War of 1934, when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss sent the Army to shell civilian housing occupied by the socialist militia. In 1938, after a triumphant entry into Austria, Adolf Hitler famously spoke to the Austrian people from the balcony of the Neue Burg, a part of the Hofburg at the Heldenplatz. Between 1938 (Anschluß
and the end of the Second World War, Vienna lost its status as a capital to Berlin.
In 1945, the Vienna Offensive was successfully launched by the Soviets against the Germans holding Vienna. The city was besieged for about two weeks before it fell to the Soviets. After 1945, Vienna again became the capital of Austria. It was initially divided into four zones by the 4 Powers and was governed by the Allied Commission for Austria. During the 10 years of foreign occupation Vienna became a hot-bed for international espionage between the Western and Eastern blocs.
In the 1970s Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky inaugurated the creation of the Vienna International Centre, a new area of the city created to host international institutions. Vienna has regained a part of its former international relevance by hosting such international organizations as the United Nations (UNIDO, UNOV, CTBTO and UNODC), the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
Legend has it that Klagenfurt was founded after a brave man killed a dragon ("Lindwurm") in the moors around here. A statue in the town center commemorates this. In reality, it was founded by the Count of Carinthia, Duke Herman, as a stronghold across the commercial routes in the area, it is mentioned for the first time in the late 12th century as Forum Chlagenvurth. That settlement occupied an area who was subject to frequent floods, so in 1246 his son, duke Bernhard von Spanheim founded it again in a more secure position. It received city rights in 1252.
In the following centuries it suffered fires, earthquakes, grasshopper invasions and ravages brought by the Peasants' War. In 1514 a fire destroyed the city almost completely, and Emperor Maximilian I, unable to rebuild it, ceded it to the Regional Parliament. Never before had such a thing happened. This brought a revival and an economical Renaissance for Klagenfurt, with, in particular, the construction of the Neuer Platz (new city centre square) by the Italian architect Domenico de Lalio, and a new line of walls.
In 1809 the French troops under Napoleon destroyed the city walls, leaving only a small stretch now visible. In 1863 the railway connection to St. Veit an der Glan boosted the city economy, turning it into the most important centre of the region. During WWII, the town was bombed 41 times, killing 612 people, completely destroying 443 buildings, and damaging 1,132 others. A plaque now stands over the site where the citizens of Klagenfurt were evacuated.
Klagenfurt became the first city in Austria to adapt pedestrian zones, in 1961. In 1973 Klagenfurt absorbed four adjacent municipalities, increasing its size. Klagenfurt was also a contender for the 2006 Winter Olympics.
Traces of human settlements have been found in the area, dating to the Neolithic Age; probably it was later a Celt camp. Starting from 15 BCE, the small communities were grouped into a single town, which was named by the Romans as Juvavum. A municipium, from 45 CE it became one of the most important cities in the province of Noricum. Juvavum declined sharply after the collapse of the Norican frontier, such that by the late 7th century it had become a "near ruin".
The Life of Saint Rupert credits the saint with the city's rebirth. When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, and annexed the manor Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg", and then left to evangelize among the pagans.
The name Salzburg literally means "Salt Castle", and derives its name from the barges carrying salt on the Salzach river, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century, as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers.
The Festung Hohensalzburg, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 and expanded during the following centuries.
Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century.
Earliest traces suggest initial inhabitation in the early Stone Age. Surviving pre-Roman place names show that the area has been populated continuously. In the fourth century the Romans established the army station Veldidena (the name survives in today's urban district Wilten) at Oenipons (Innsbruck), to protect the economically important commercial road from Verona-Brenner-Augsburg. Connections along this road were interrupted during the Völkerwanderung in the fourth century.
The first mention of Innsbruck dates back to 1187 (Oeni Pontum or oeni pons which is Latin for bridge (pons) over the Inn (Oenus), which was an important crossing point over the river Inn. The city's seal and coat of arms show a bird's-eye view of the Inn bridge, a design used since 1267. The route over the Brenner Pass was then a major transport and communications link between the north and the south, and the easiest route across the Alps. The revenues generated by serving as a transit station enabled the city to flourish.
Innsbruck became the capital of all Tyrol in 1429 and in the fifteenth century the city became a centre of European politics and culture as emperor Maximilian I moved the imperial court to Innsbruck in the 1490s.
During the Napoleonic wars Tyrol was ceded to Bavaria, ally of France. Andreas Hofer led a Tyrolean peasant army to victory on the Berg Isel against the combined Bavarian and French forces, and then made Innsbruck the centre of his administration. The combined army later overran the Tyrolean militia army and until 1814 Innsbruck was part of Bavaria. After the Vienna Congress Austrian rule was restored. The Tyrolean hero Andreas Hofer was executed in Mantua; his remains were returned to Innsbruck in 1823 and interred in the Franciscan church.
In 1938 Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in the Anschluss. Between 1943 and April 1945, Innsbruck experienced twenty-one bomb attacks and suffered heavy damage. The KZ Innsbruck-Reichenau concentration camp was located here.
In 1929, here in Innsbruck the first official Austrian Chess Championship was held. The winners were Erich Eliskases, Eduard Glass.