Have you not tried a safety razor or cut throat?
Also do you use soap, foam, oil or cream?
You skin sounds similar to mine. If I shave daily (whichever way) I get a painfull rash. I used to just trim it like in the gif & I was happy with that. My my beard is grey now and the little lady always complains when I have stubble or beard. So I pretty much have to shave (I would prefer not to).
I would never shave after a shower! The hair goes everywhere. It makes sense to have a shower after shave. You can soften everything with a good soap or cream. Every barber I know says soap is far superior to foam.