I'm curious as to how high the standards of the domestic league are, are all the 1st division clubs professional?
Well, Estonian league is one of the weakest leagues in Europe.Most of the 1st division (Meistriliiga) clubs are professional, but there some semi-professional players in the league too.There is not much money moving in Estonian league, because it's quite unpopular - the average attendances are around 200-300, games are not televised.The average salary is quite low, under $1000 per month, so it's quite hard for players to make a living, unless they belong to some top club.
Currently there are 8 clubs in the Premier league, the big four is: FC Flora Tallinn, FC Levadia Tallinn, FC TVMK Tallinn, JK Narva Trans.The biggest is FC Flora, which is the basis of national team too.Over 90% of the players who play for the Estonian national team come through the Flora system.Flora and it's farm club Viljandi Tulevik are mostly composed from the players who have Estonian passport.Other 6 clubs in the league have lots of players without the passport, and also players from other Eastern European countries.
How would I go about earning trials with them?Would a young foreigner be welcome?
Hard to say.I quess it might be difficult to get a trial in FC Flora, as they have quite a good youth system and usually doesn't use foreign players very often.Anyway, I quess that when you are good enough to train with Uruguayan 2nd division club, then you are good enough to at least earn a trial (and possibly a contract too) in most of the Estonian clubs.
Also, I have cousins in Nomme and Tartü, so if anyone has information on the clubs there, it would be much appreciated.
There are plenty of clubs in Tallinn (Nõmme is the suburb of Tallinn).In Tartu there are two: JK Merkuur (1st division) and JK Tammeka (2nd division).
If you want to find general information, web pages and contact details of Estonian clubs, then I reccommend this page: http://www.soccernet.ee/koosseisud.php